jueves, 31 de mayo de 2012

American Structuralism Glossary

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1.     A posteriori: it is an adjective which means from particular instances to a general principle or law; based upon actual observation or upon experimental data.

2.     A priori: It is an adjective that means from a general law to a particular instance; valid independently of observation.

3.     Absolute position: it is the order of a form which is alone.

4.     Adaptation: is the analogic change that extends the use of a glosseme.

5.     Agreement: it is a narrower type of selection, which congruence or concord are simple forms.

6.     Analogic change: it is the linguistic change that may substitute sames for differents.

7.       Anaphoric: referring back to or substituting for a preceding word or group of words.

8.     Automatic alternation: it happens when a formal alternation is determined by the phonemes of the accompanying forms.

9.     Axioms: definitions or assumptions.

10. Binarist: adjective referred to the descriptive structuralist, and means a whole composed of two.

11. Bound: adjective which describes a dependent morpheme.

12. Categories: they are the functional meanings and class-meanings.

13. Circumlocution: Evasion in speech or writing (intralinguistically, interlinguistically, translation.

14. Class-meaning: these are the functional meanings in which the forms of a forms-class appear.

15. Colloquial standard: it is observed in situations lacking formal behaviors among observably privileged classes within a larger speech community.

16. Connotation: it is the subjective or socialized relation of the referent for speakers to other referents and properties.

17. Constructional meaning: it is the corresponding stimulus-reaction feature of the constructions.

18. Contamination: it is the analogic change which creates or enlarges a glosseme.

19. Cross-reference: it is a type of selection that subclasses contain and actual mention of the forms with they are joined.

20. Deduced: it means to derive as a conclusion from something known or assumed.

21. Demonstration: it is an explanation, as of a theory or product, by practical application (pointing).

22. Denotation: Something signified or referred to; a particular meaning of a symbol. It is the reference and/or referent.

23. Density of communication: it is the communication that can be empirically observed, quantified, and correlated with geography, social stratification, occupation, success in cooperation, and consequences in describable speech differences.

24. Dialect: it is the linguistic change between groups of persons in which communication is disturbed.

25. Different: adjective that describe that something is not alike.

26. Displaced or relayed speech: it is when speakers utter forms when there is no obvious, contemporary empirical stimulus.

27. Duration: it is the relatice length of time through which the vocal organs are kept in a position.

28. Endocentric: it is a kind of construction that takes place when a free forms combining can be said to produce a resultant phrase, of which the form-class of one member can be determinative of the phrase’s grammatical behavior.

29. Episeme: it is the meaning of tagmeme.

30. Evidence: it is the support of proving something.

31. Exocentric: it is a type of construction that occurs when a phrase does not follow the grammatical behavior of either constituent.

32.    Extranlinguistically: it is an adverb which describes that a word is not included within the realm of language or linguistics.

33. Facts: reals occurrences that demonstrate that something exists because it happens.

34. Feasible goals: goals which are capable of being accomplished or possible.

35. Formal alternation: in a construction of a form the formal alternation may happen with another form.

36. Formal change: it is the analogic change of formatives.

37. Formative: it is the bound form which is part of a word.

38. Form-class: they are all the forms that have the same functions.

39. Forms: they are the vocal features commonly same or partly same utterances.

40. Free: adjective which describes an independent morpheme.

41. Functional meaning: it is the meaning of a word according and related with its position in a sentence.

42. Functions: these are the positions in which a form occurs.

43.    Fundamental assumption of linguistics: is in certain communities (speech-communities) some speech-utterances are alike as to form and meaning.

44. Glosseme: it refers whatever has a meaning.

45. Government: it is a kind of selection which can control the syntactic position of a form.

46. Grammatical alternation: it is a formal alternation determined in the grammatical structure of a sentence.

47. Gross acoustic features: it is a set of phonemes that are distinctive for a particular language.

48. Homonyms: they are words that are produced because there are no-minimum forms alike as to the order of the constituent forms.

49. Hypostasis: it is something that stands under and supports; foundation.

50. Impose: it refers making an impression on the mind; impose one's or its influence.

51. Included position: it is the order of a form which is with another one.

52. Induced: it means to lead or move by persuasion or influence, as to some action or state of mind.

53.    Intralinguistically: adverb related within a particular language.

54. Labialized: it is the process occurred during the production of a consonant in which the lips are rounded.

55. Labiovelarized: it is the process that takes place in the production of a consonant in which the velarization and the labialized processes are together.

56. Language articulation: it is the process by which person form words.

57. Language of a speech community: the totality of utterances that can be made in a speech-community.

58. Language’s lexicon: it is the total stock of morphemes.

59. Language’s morphology: it is the set of rules related with grammatical categories or linguistic units: including inflection, derivation, etc.

60. Language’s syntax: it is the study of the rules whereby words or the other elements of sentence structure are combined to forms grammatical sentences.

61. Legitimate date: it is the data based on logical reasoning and it is in accordance with established standards.

62. Lexicon: The morphemes of a language considered as a group

63. Linguistic borrowing: it is the process in which a person who speaks a foreign language or dialect adopts features of it into his own speech.

64. Literary standard: it is an accessible through general or personal education effort, transcends geographic and social barriers, and is used on occasions described as formal.

65. Loan-words: there are words that are borrowed from another language.

66. Local dialect: it is an interaction group with which others have so little contact that dialect speakers are incomprehensible without considerable attention.

67. Marginal meanings: it is the meaning which can be transferred or metaphoric.

68. Materialism: it differs from mentalism by distinguishing real potentials from their actualization. It is monistic, it means, that only admits a single kind of data.

69. Meaning of forms: this is the corresponding stimulus-reaction feature.

70. Meaning: the nonlinguistic cultural correlate, reference, or denotation of a linguistic form; expression.

71. Mentalism: it assumes that there are factors in mental operations exempt from physical laws in the empirical realm.

72. Mere: syncategoremic expression that lacks of sense and reference. It is not quantifiable and does not function as subject or predicate in falsiable assertions.

73. Method: an orderly arrangement of parts or steps to accomplish something.

74. Modulation: the use of a particular distribution of stress or pitch in a construction.

75. Mora stress: it is the intensity or loudness which consists in greater amplitude of sound waves and is produced by means of more energetic movements.

76. Morpheme: it is the minimum meaningful unit of a word.

77. Neogrammarian’s credo: it is a set of statements of the new grammarians which consist of the dual principle of the exceptionless nature of the sound laws and the recognition of the operation of analogy.

78. Noeme: it is the meaning of a glosseme.

79. Objectivity: opinion based on observable phenomena, uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices.

80. Onomatopocia: it consists in derivations from the ordinary tie-up of phonetic form with dictionary meaning, which still shows considerable complexity.

81. Order: the disposition of things following one after another, as in space or time; succession or sequence.

82. Palatalization: it is the process occurred during the production of a consonant; the tongue and lips take up, as far as compatible with the main features of the phoneme and the position of a front vowel.

83. Parts of speech: these are the maximum word-classes of a language (adjective, nouns, verbs, adverbs, etc.)

84. Phoneme: it is the minimum meaningful vocal feature or sound.

85. Phonetic alternation: in a construction of a phoneme, they may alternate with another phoneme according to the accompanying phoneme.

86. Phonetic modification: it is the change in primary phonemes as in run-ran.

87. Phonetic pattern: it is the classification of the phonemes implied in the sound-patterns, phonetic alternations and automatic formal alternations of the language.

88. Phonetics: it is the branch of linguistics that describes empirically the productions of sounds.

89. Phrase: it is a combination of words that communicates a meaningful message.

90. Phrase-formative: it is when a phrase may contain a bound form which is not part of a word.

91. Pitch: it is the frequency of vibration in the musical sound of the voice.

92. Popular semantics: it is the study of the ‘popular’ meaning to words of a specific ethnic group.

93. Postulation method: it uses axioms to define terms and to decide what things may exist independently and what are interdependent.

94. Predication: it is the assumption (something) of the subject of a proposition.

95. Proportional analogy: it is the adaptation which replaces one alternant with another.

96. Provincial standard: it is observed among those remote geographically from the formative environment of cultural centers.

97. Quasi-biblical: A term denoting a belief or system of beliefs having at least partial reference to, or derivation from the Bible.

98. Reference: it is a static relation, dynamic process or action linking grammatical meanings to failures mediated by autonomous meanings.

99. Referent: A person or thing to which a linguistic expression refers.

100.  Regular: it is the form which determine one grammatical variant predominate as to number (the other ones different from regular, are called irregulars).

101.  Related languages: it is the language spoken in a group of person that results from the change of language in which communication is impossible.

102.  Same: adjective that describe that something is alike.

103.  Sandhi: it is the label for features of modulation and phonetic modification important to many syntactic structures.

104.  Scientistic: means confusion of technical jargon and empirical trappings with whatever ‘real’ science is.

105.  Semantic change: it is the analogic change of words.

106.  Sememe: it is the meaning expressed by a morpheme.

107.  Sense: it is a state, process, or action within failures by which autonomous meanings are related to grammatical meanings.

108.  Sentence: it is a maximum construction in any utterance.

109.  Situation: it includes every object and happening in the universe.

110.  Sound patterns: they are the orders which the phonemes in the morphemes and words are set.

111.  Sound substitution: it is the linguistic substitution of phonemes.

112.  Sound-change: it is the change in which phonemes or classes of phonemes became different in the relationship with the environment or certain other phonemes.

113.  Speech community: utterances that are used in a specific community.

114.  Standards: it is a relatively uniform auxiliary dialect used by such groups.

115.  Sub-categories: they are the meanings of a few forms, if a form contains it.

116.  Subjective: opinion based on personal thinking and judgment.

117.  Subjunctive event: this kind of events includes experience of individuality, choice, responsibility, value, insight.

118.  Sub-linguistic communication: it is a kind of communication that uses linguistics forms in which the ordinary meaning of the forms plays no part.

119.  Sub-standard: it is the speech behavior found among those who must interact daily as peers, with each other, but only occasionally.

120.  Substitute response: it is the replaced reaction to a specific stimulus (immediate stimulus).

121.  Substitute stimulus: it is a replaced action or condition that accelerates a physiological and/or psychological response.

122.  Substitution: it is the process in which a person who speaks a foreign language or dialect replaces the resemblant features of his native speech.

123.  Suppletive: it is a form that has all the component forms irregular.

124.  Syntactic construction: it is any meaningful recurrent set of taxemes.

125.  Syntactic construction: it is the construction of free forms in a phrase.

126.  Tagmeme: it is a meaningful unit of grammatical form. It can consist of several taxemes.

127.  Taxeme: it is a simple feature of grammatical arrangement.

128.  Taxonomic Grammarians: grammarians that classify the language in a finite collection or corpus of concrete utterances. They use an empirical method.

129.  Taxonomy: it is a classification into ordered categories

130.  Transition: it is the manner in which the vocal organs pass from inactivity to the formation of a phoneme, or form the formation of one phoneme to that of the next. Or the formation of a phoneme to inactivity.

131.  Utterance: an act of speech.

132.  Velarization: it is the process that takes place in the production of a consonant in which the tongue is retracted as for a back vowel.

133.  Word: it is a combination of sounds that symbolizes a meaning. A minimum meaningful free form is a word.

134.  Word-class: it is a form-class of words.

135.  Zero element: it is the absence of sound may be a phonetic or formal alternant.

Dictionary.com. 2012. Retrieved from April 23, 2012 <<http://dictionary.reference.com>>

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